This article was written by Aaron Asselin, Youth Pastor for Savannah Holy Church of God. We have made minor edits for readability on the website only. The original title is “Our Personal Responsibility: God’s Holiness Considered, and Man’s Holiness Commissioned”
One must ask himself if modern Christians are known by what has captivated them, or if they are known by what they have associated with.
Are church members known as Christians because they are captivated with Christ, or are they known as Christians because they attend worship services?
The Bible brings out that the Christian should be known as such because he lives according to the Scripture, thereby obeying the commands of God. One of the biblical commands of God is to be holy, because God is holy.
1Peter 1:15-16 But as he which hath called you is holy, so be ye holy in all manner of conversation; 16 Because it is written, Be ye holy; for I am holy.
God’s holiness is an imitable attribute that is required in all believers as is Scripturally commanded, patristically (relating to the early church fathers) advocated, practically possible, and contemporarily necessary.
Believers must understand God’s attribute of holiness as has been revealed, and believers must accomplish God’s command for holiness.
God is Holy
God has chosen to reveal himself to mankind.
God created the world according to the Genesis account, and with the creation of the world was the creation of mankind. From that point, God revealed himself to mankind and has continued to reveal himself to mankind throughout the dispensations of time.
In his revelation of himself to man, God has used two different methods.
God Has Used General Revelation To Enlighten Man’s Understanding Of God
First, God has used general revelation to enlighten man’s understanding of God. The Psalmist stated that creation declared the glory and work of God and that creation’s voice was heard in every language.
Ps. 19:1-5 The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork. 2 Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowledge. 3 There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard. 4 Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. In them hath he set a tabernacle for the sun, 5 Which is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, and rejoiceth as a strong man to run a race.
Paul wrote that the invisible things of God were seen through the creation of the world, leaving man without excuse concerning the knowledge of God.
Rom. 1:18-21 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness; 19 Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed it unto them. 20 For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse: 21 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.
Charles Hodge pointed out that the works God has done and is doing declare his being and attributes.
Essentially, man can know about God through general revelation, or nature, such as the universe and creation.
God Has Used Specific Revelation To Give Man A Better Understanding Of God.
Second, God has used specific revelation to give man a better understanding of God.
Specific revelation is the inspired Scriptures through which God has chosen to give the clearest picture of himself.
Paul wrote to Timothy and said,
2 Timothy 3:16 -17 All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: 17 That the man of God may be perfect, throughly furnished unto all good works.
John Stott wrote concerning inspiration that all Scripture started in God’s mind and was spoken by God’s breath, or Spirit. 
Literally, God breathed his Word into existence, thereby giving the clearest picture of his own person to mankind.
Therefore, through general and specific revelation man can know about God, who has revealed himself.
God’s Self-Revelation Reveals his Characteristics
God’s self-revelation through nature and the Scripture has revealed his characteristics or attributes.
Included in the attributes of God are his omniscience and omnipotence, to name a few. However, God’s omnipotence and omniscience, along with his other attributes, all find their way back to God’s holiness.
Charnock stated that all God’s perfections would be uncomely without holiness to cover them. It is God’s holiness that gives glory to all of his nature.
Thiessen noted well that God’s holiness signifies a separation from his creation, as well as separation from all evil and sin.
Thomas Oden stated that “holiness summarizes, unifies, and integrates all the other incomparably good characteristics of the divine life.”
In essence, these truths give a full picture about the holiness of God.
God’s holiness is integrated within all of his nature, unifying and glorifying it. Moreover, in his holiness he is separate from all created things, evil, and sin. Therefore, the holiness of God must be considered a fundamental part of his nature.
God’s Characteristics Dictate Man’s Interaction with God.
God has ordained that he must be approached in his way. Thankfully, God has delineated the way in which man must approach him throughout Scripture.
Throughout the Old Testament, God instituted the sacrificial system so that Israel could approach him.
Then Christ came as the Lamb slain before the foundation of the world.
1 Peter 1:17-21 Because it is written, Be ye holy; for I am holy. 17 And if ye call on the Father, who without respect of persons judgeth according to every man’s work, pass the time of your sojourning here in fear: 18 Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from your fathers; 19 But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot: 20 Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you, 21 Who by him do believe in God, that raised him up from the dead, and gave him glory; that your faith and hope might be in God.
Accordingly, from the initial coming of Christ to earth, there is only one way in which man can approach unto God and that is through Jesus Christ. Christ himself said that he was the door and any man who goes through him would be saved.
John 10:9 I am the door: by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall go in and out, and find pasture.
Any man who would attempt to approach God through another means is directly rebelling against the law of God, which is sin.
1 John. 3:4 Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law: for sin is the transgression of the law.
Man cannot sin and be in right standing with God. Wherefore, man cannot choose the way in which he approaches unto God for God has already mandated the approach.
Now, God has delineated in Scripture the way in which man must approach him.
First, man must be regenerated and justified. Henry Thiessen brings out the point that regeneration brings newness in the heart of a man.
Paul brings out this truth in his epistle to the Corinthians when he states that
2 Cor. 5:17 Therefore if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature: old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new.
Justification deals with an imputation of Christ’s righteousness to an individual because of the individual’s faith. God declares those who believe on Jesus Christ to be righteous because of the righteousness of Christ.
It is entirely through faith in Christ and not of works.
Rom. 3:28 Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law.
Charles Finney stated that:
It consists not in the law pronouncing the sinner just, but in his being ultimately governmentally treated as if he were just; that is, it consists in a governmental decree of pardon or amnesty…in pardoning and restoring to favor those who have sinned, and those whom the law had pronounced guilty, and upon whom it had passed the sentence of eternal death, and rewarding them as if they had been righteous.
Paul states that this pardoning, or justifying, gives peace with God through Jesus Christ.
Rom. 5:1 -2 Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ: 2 By whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God.
Accordingly, man can approach God because he has been brought into right standing with God through Jesus Christ.
Also, God has not only declared that a man must be justified and regenerated, but God has also declared that a man is to be sanctified, which is the process of being made holy, through the work of the Holy Spirit.
In the Old Testament called his people to be holy, because he is holy and to sanctify themselves
Lev. 11:44-45 For I am the LORD your God: ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be holy; for I am holy: neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. 45 For I am the LORD that bringeth you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy.
Once again, Peter echoes the refrain that man is to be holy because God is holy.
1Pet. 1:15-16 But as he which hath called you is holy, so be ye holy in all manner of conversation; 16 Because it is written, Be ye holy; for I am holy.
Paul wrote that sanctification was God’s will
1 Thess 4:3 – 4 For this is the will of God, even your sanctification, that ye should abstain from fornication: 4 That every one of you should know how to possess his vessel in sanctification and honour;
Moreover, Paul also declares how this sanctification happens, that it is through the sanctification of the Spirit.
Furthermore, the Pauline Epistles tell the believers to yield their members unto holiness, have fruit unto holiness, and to perfect holiness.
Essentially, the New Testament carries forth the Old Testament truth: God desires his people to be holy, or sanctified. This is done through a work of the Holy Spirit, and this is also in part a personal responsibility of the believers.
In summary, God is holy. This has been revealed, along with his other attributes, through both general and specific revelation. His holiness interacts with all of his nature and essence, glorifying and unifying it.
Moreover, it is God’s holiness which has demanded that man approach him by salvation through Jesus Christ. Christ’s sacrifice has paid the price for man’s regeneration, and it is by faith in Christ that man is justified.
Furthermore, God has mandated that the believer, he who is regenerated and justified, be holy because God is holy.
Therefore, it is now the responsibility of the believer to understand what God’s mandate for human holiness entails.
Man must be Holy
Holiness for Man has been Defined Clearly
Scripture, from the Old Testament through the New Testament, teaches holiness.
It teaches a personal and a communal holiness. Both aspects of holiness are to be observed and followed, by each believer.
The Pentateuch shows this truth concerning holiness when it declares that Israel as a nation would be holy, and that each individual member of the nation was to sanctify himself and be holy.
New Testament authors then carry on the teaching of holiness, showing that being holy makes an individual blameless.
Peter puts forth the clarion call that the believer is to be holy because God is holy; moreover, Peter also echoes that the Church is to be a holy nation
1 Pet. 1:16 Because it is written, Be ye holy; for I am holy.
1 Pet 2:9 – 10 But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light: 10 Which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God: which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy.
Herein is the picture finalized that each believer is to be holy, and that the Church as a universal body is to be holy.
Now, Scripture gives a clear definition for holiness. W. E. Vine gives a brief overview of the meaning of the different Greek words which translate into the English words holiness, holy, and holily, in the New Testament.
The results of his overview was that holiness signifies separation to God, and the conduct befitting the separated; in other words, to live separate from all impurity by forsaking sin and living a holy lifestyle.
Essentially, the New Testament, which builds upon the Old Testament, teaches that holiness is based in separation to God. This entails a separation from anything that displeases or is antithetical to God.
Robert McCabe points out how Peter reiterates the call of God in Leviticus for his people to follow him, thereby imitating God’s moral holiness which necessarily leads to a separation from anything that hinders this pursuit of holiness by God’s people.
Once again, the foundation of separation is seen in the Scriptural essence of holiness. Therefore, one may conclude that Scriptural holiness is based upon separation to God and separation from whatever is affronting or displeasing to God.
The early Church Fathers wrote concerning holiness, especially as a personal responsibility. Justin Martyr said,
Do not suppose, ye Greeks, that my separation from your customs is unreasonable and unthinking; for I found in them nothing that is holy and acceptable to God. 
Clement writes that “life is separation from sin.”
It is noticeable that the Patristic teaching contains an element of separation. This separation dealt with the lifestyle of the believer.
For example, Justin Martyr separated from the Greeks because their lifestyle was not holy and acceptable to God.
Clement wrote that life comes with separation from sin.
Therefore, the truth must come forth from Scripture and Patristic leaders that holiness foundationally deals with separation.
Holiness has been commanded by Scripture
Holiness has been commanded by Scripture. The Old Testament began in the Leviticus with the direct command of “be ye holy, for I am holy” (Lev. 11:45). The New Testament carried this teaching over as Peter reiterates the command of “be ye holy, for I am holy” (1Pet. 1:15-16).
Yet, the Scripture differentiates between an internal holiness and an external holiness.
For instance, God gives actual external standards for how his people are to conduct themselves in everyday life.
God repeated the law in the book of Deuteronomy as he prepared Israel to enter into Canaan. This is because he had already set into motion that his people would be separated unto him from all the people of the earth.
God’s people were to be separate in their lifestyles, their dress, and their worship. Accordingly, God clearly delineated in the Mosaic Law everything that Israel needed to know in order to live the separated life.
The advent of Christ through the Incarnation brought about a clearer, and more extensive, separatism.
Throughout the Gospels Christ would teach that there needed to be internal and external holiness. The Pharisees had an external standard, but no internal holiness, and were summarily rebuked by Christ.
Matt. 23:25-26 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess. 26 Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first that which is within the cup and platter, that the outside of them may be clean also.
It wasn’t that the Pharisees were wrong for holding an external standard, but they were wrong because their heart wasn’t right.
Essentially, Christ was showing that there must be both external and internal holiness.
Moreover, all throughout the Epistolary writings there are differentiations of external and internal holiness.
For instance, Paul writes for the believers to cleanse themselves from “all filthiness of the flesh and spirit…” (2Cor. 7:1).
Paul wrote to the Romans that they were to present their bodies a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God (Rom. 12:1).
The Epistle to the Thessalonian Church calls for the believers to be sanctified in their bodies, souls, and spirits (1 Thess 5:23).
These few instances alone lay enough evidence to support the stance that the New Testament calls unequivocally for both an internal and an external holiness.
Therefore, one must conclude that the Scripture commands for an external and internal separation to God; and conversely, a separation from anything antithetical to God or his desires.
Holiness has been Advocated by the Church Fathers
The writings of the Church Fathers clearly advocate a holiness that is founded on the concept of separation, and which is both internal and external.
One must understand that the terminology of the Church Fathers was not exclusive to the words holiness or holy. Instead, they often used other terms such as chastity and sanctity, purity and perfection.
Wherefore, in the early church writings this must be recognized in order to fully understand the message of holiness that was contained therein.
Now, there are many different passages about holiness in the writings of the Church Fathers, of which only a few different passages shall be selected. First, Tertullian wrote a considerable amount about external holiness. One of his main topics was modesty in attire and adornments, both for men and women.
For instance, he wrote for the women to abstain from prostitutionary garbs and garments.
Tertullian also wrote to the men about the frivolous vanity that was taking place in outlandish beard styles and makeup: essentially, such vanity was hostile to modesty and consequently it was hostile to God.
Summarily, Tertullian was advocated a separation in the believer’s outward appearance, which he called modesty, that was based on separation from the world unto God.
A second Church Father who preached both and outward and inward holiness based on separation was Cyprian.
He taught about holiness by separation and used the term chastity to envelope his doctrine. Cyprian wanted the believers to “before all things maintain the barriers of chastity.”
Cyprian continues on chastity by stating:
Chastity is the dignity of the body, the ornament of morality, the sacredness of the sexes, the bond of modesty, the source of purity, the peacefulness of home, the crown of concord. Chastity is not careful whom it pleases but itself. Chastity is always modest, being the mother of innocency; chastity is ever adorned with modesty alone, then rightly conscious of its own beauty if it is displeasing to the wicked. Chastity seeks nothing in the way of adornments: it is its own glory. It is this which commends us to the Lord, unites us with Christ; it is this which drives from our members all the illicit conflicts of desire, instills peace into our bodies: blessed itself, and making those blessed, whoever they are, in whom it condescends to dwell.
Cyprian taught an internal holiness which coincidently agreed with Tertullian’s teaching on modesty. For Cyprian, this holiness started in the heart and bore an external fruit of separation in appearance and action.
Paul used this analogy of an inward root bearing outward fruit unto holiness in his Epistle to the Romans
Rom. 6:23 For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord
Thus, there is a direct continued teaching of holiness by separation, both outward and inward, which is advocated by the Church Fathers.
Holiness in Man is Practically Possible
After defining holiness, both Scripturally and historically as being based on separation internally and externally, one must consider the feasibility of such a commission for believers.
Now, reason cannot support the idea that God would call or command someone to a holy lifestyle if it were impossible to fulfill such a lifestyle.
However, objections may be raised, both subtly and openly, against a holiness that is based upon separation.
For instance, Emil Brunner would submit that sanctification, the process of being made holy, is not actions but a state of being; it is about being a true fellow man to men.
Brunner turns sanctification into how an individual treats his neighbor, as opposed to living separate from evil in a life of holiness.
Scripture teaches one to love his neighbor,
Matt. 19:19 Honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
but that does not do away with a personal responsibility to bear fruit of holiness.
Rom. 6:22 But now being made free from sin, and become servants to God, ye have your fruit unto holiness, and the end everlasting life.
Instead, coupled within a personal holiness is an interpersonal code of ethical behavior, such as Jesus commanding each man to treat another individual as he would be treated.
Matt. 7:12 Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them: for this is the law and the prophets.
Moreover, John Starke presented three reasons in support of a personal holiness:
- first, the believer is indwelt by the Holy Spirit, making the believer different from the word;
- second, Church discipline has no meaning without an expectation of personal holiness;
- and finally, the community is made up of individuals.
Thus, communal holiness only comes because the individuals in the community are holy.
Yet, this does not give total clarity on necessary steps that must be taken in order to fulfill the mandate for holiness that God has given. Joel Beeke gives several points which are beneficial in the pursuit of a practical, personal holiness.
- First, Beeke encourages the individual to know and love the Scripture.
- Second, the believer is encouraged to pray and be dependent upon God.
- Third, the individual is encouraged to flee from worldliness.
Knowing Scripture is crucial because an individual will not know God’s definition and requirements of holiness unless he studies Scripture, God’s self-revelation.
Praying is critical because it causes to the believer to acknowledge that he is dependent on God and helpless without God.
Fleeing from worldliness is crucial because it removes the believer from the influences of sin, making it easier to live a life of holiness.
Therefore, the believer can live a practical holy life if he studies the Scripture, pray for help from God, and seeks to remove himself from any form of worldliness or ungodliness.
Holiness in Man is Contemporarily Necessary
In addition to the Scriptural command of holiness, there is a contemporary necessity of holiness.
First, holiness is contemporarily necessary because of personal responsibility.
John revealed that all men were judged of their own works.
Rev. 20:13 And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works.
Paul wrote that each man would appear before the judgment seat of Christ to be judged for his own works.
2 Cor. 5:10 For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad.
Man will not be judged for the past generations, or the future generations, but he will be judged for his own life.
Therefore, it is contemporarily necessary for a man to be personally holy.
Second, personal holiness is contemporarily necessary because of evangelical responsibility.
Christ commissioned his followers, not just the twelve disciples, to go into the entire world teaching the gospel and making disciples.
Matt. 18:18-20 Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. 19 Again I say unto you, That if two of you shall agree on earth as touching any thing that they shall ask, it shall be done for them of my Father which is in heaven. 20 For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them.
If there is no difference in lifestyle between the saved and sinner, why does the sinner need to be saved? The sinner’s life would be just as holy and acceptable before God.
However, if there is a difference, because the saved is holy, and the sinner is not, then there is a conviction that is given because the saint has shown his personal faith through his life.
Thus, in order to evangelize the world, there is a necessity of personal holiness.
In conclusion, let everyone consider his personal responsibility before God. Every Christian, as the writer of Hebrews pointed out, is surrounded by witnesses.
Heb. 12:1 – 2 Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us, 2 Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God.
This article has presented Scriptural and historical witnesses which call the believer to live a life of personal holiness.
There are clear guidelines of what a life of personal holiness is, and there are guidelines given which direct a life of personal holiness.
The question which arises and confronts each individual is whether or not they will live according to God’s mandated plan for their life.
The answer to this question will come from either their captivation or association.
If the individual is associated with Christ, he will not be inclined to follow after holiness. However, if an individual is captivated with Christ, he will not deter his path from the responsibility of a lifestyle in personal, practical holiness.
Therefore, let each believer consider and imitate God’s holiness as the believer performs his personal responsibility of being holy.
Beeke, Joel R. “Cultivating Holiness,” Revival and Reformation, 04:2 (Spring 1995); p 81-107.
Bruce, F.F. Commentary on the Book of Acts. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdman’s Publishing Company, 1955.
Brunner, Emil. The Christian Doctrine of the Church, Faith, and the Consummation. David Cairns and T. H. L. Parker, trans. Philadelphia, PA: The Westminster Press, 1962.
Charnock, Stephen. The Existence and Attributes of God: Two Volumes in One. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1996.
Finney, Charles G. Finney’s Systematic Theology. Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers, 1994.
Hodge, Charles. Systematic Theology, Vol. 1. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1982.
McKabe, Robert V. “The Old Testament Foundation for Separation,” Detroit Baptist Seminary Journal 7: no.1 (Fall 2002): p 3-22. https://www.galaxie.com.
Oden, Thomas C. The Living God: Systematic Theology, Vol. 1. New York, NY: HarperOne, 1987.
Roberts, Alexander, and James Donaldson, ed. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vols. 1, 2, 4, and 5. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1956.
Starke, John. “Why Holiness Must be Personal,” The Gospel Coalition, July 30, 2011. https://www.thegospelcoalition.org.
Stott, John. The Message of Second Timothy. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1973.
Thiessen, Henry C. Lectures in Systematic Theology. Grand Rpaids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1973.
Vine, W. E. The Expanded Vine’s Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words. John R. Kohlenberger III, ed. Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers, 1984.
 See Genesis 1-2, KJV.
 Hodge, Charles. Systematic Theology. Vol. 1. (Grand Rapids, MI: WM. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1982), p 24.
 Sott, John. The Message of 2 Timothy. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1973), p 102.
 Charnock, Stephen. The Existence and Attributes of God. Vol. 2. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1996), p 113.
 Thiessen, Henry. Lectures in Systematic Theology. (Grand Rapids, MI: WM. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1973), p 128.
 Oden, Thomas C. The Living God: Systematic Theology. Vol. 1. (New York, NY: HarperOne, 1987), p 100.
 Thiessen, Henry. Lectures in Systematic Theology. (Grand Rapids, MI: WM. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1973), p 367.
 Finney, Charles G. Finney’s Systematic Theology. (Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers, 1994), p 361.
 2 Thessalonians 2:13, KJV. See also 1 Peter 1:2.
 Romans 6:19, 22; 2 Corinthians 7:1, KJV.
 Exodus 19:6; Leviticus 11:44, KJV.
 Ephesians 1:4; Colossians 1:22, KJV.
 Vine, W. E. The Expanded Vine’s Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words. John R. Kohlenberger III, ed. (Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers,1984), p 555-556.
 Robert V. McKabe. “The Old Testament Foundation for Separation,” Detroit Baptist Seminary Journal 7, no. 1 (Fall 2002): 11.
 Justin Martyr. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 1. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdman’s Publishing Company, 1956), p 271.
 Clement. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 2. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1956), p 411.
 See the Ten Commandments in Exodus 20:1-17, KJV.
 Robert V. McKabe. “The Old Testament Foundation for Separation,” Detroit Baptist Seminary Journal 7, no. 1. (Fall 2002): 12
 Tertullian. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 4. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1956): p 22.
 Ibid, p 22.
 Cyprian. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 5. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1956), p 588.
 Cyprian. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 5. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1956), p 588.
 Emil Brunner. The Christian Doctrine of the Church, Faith, and the Consummation. David Cairns and T. H. L. Parker, trans. (Philadelphia, PA: The Westminster Press, 1962), p 303-304.
 John Starke. “Why Holiness must be Personal,” The Gospel Coalition. (July 30, 2011): www.thegospelcoalition.org.
 Joel R. Beeke. “Cultivating Holiness,” Revival and Reformation,” 04:2, (Spring 1995); p.88-94.